Deep vein thrombosis is one of the forms of venous thromboembolism. We deal with it when a clot forms in the deep veins of the limbs. To create the thrombotic material in the venous vessel, the so-called Virchov’s triads, which include:
- Abnormal blood flow in the vessel
- Damage to the wall of the blood vessel
- Increased blood clotting
Most often it concerns the lower limbs, but it can also occur in the veins of the upper limbs. The resulting clot may clog the vein or move with the bloodstream, threatening the occurrence of pulmonary embolism. This is a very dangerous situation. It can lead to the death of a sick person.
The risk factors for deep vein thrombosis include:
- Immobilization – In the case of young people, the limb is most often immobilized as a result of an injury (eg fracture) and the need to set up a plaster. Therefore, doctors prescribe such patients anticoagulant prophylaxis (most often they are injections of heparin). Other causes of immobility (paresis, severe diseases that prevent getting out of bed) may also result in venous thrombosis.
- Injuries – Also the injury itself is a risk factor for thrombosis. This is particularly true for serious fractures, e.g. pelvis, long bones and multi-organ injuries. Major surgical procedures can also contribute to venous congestion.
- Cancer – People who suffer from malignant tumors (eg ovarian, pancreatic) have a much higher chance of experiencing thromboembolism. Their treatment as well as the disease is associated with the risk of thrombosis.
- Autoimmune diseases – Diseases that increase the chances of venous congestion include, among others: Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus.
a history of venous thromboembolism
taking oral contraceptives or hormone therapy
- Varicose veins
- Long flight by plane – lasting 6-8 hours
- Trombophilia – Inherited or acquired propensity to produce venous thrombi.
Thrombosis – symptoms
Deep vein thrombosis is symptomatic only in 1/3 of cases. Sometimes the symptoms can be very subtle, such as aching the calf while walking. The symptoms of deep vein thrombosis include:
- Limb warming
- Extension of superficial veins
- Feverishness or fever
Another type of acute venous thrombosis is painful swelling. It is manifested by strong pain, large swelling
andchange in the color of the limb (white or blue).
Prevention of venous blockage
Knowing the risk factors for venous thrombosis is easier to find a way to reduce your chances of getting sick. Remember to:
exercise regularly – physical activity helps in the fight against obesity, and also reduces the risk of varicose veins. When you have a job where you sit or stand a lot, ensure a few-minute walk once an hour.
drink a lot of water – Especially in hot weather do not allow dehydration of the body.
travel safely – On the journey, dress up comfortable, uncluttered legs. When flying, do not forget to drink a lot of water and walk on the deck. Also avoid alcohol and caffeine.
apply compression treatment – If you have had a deep vein thrombosis or you are struggling with varicose veins, your doctor will certainly choose the right compression stockings for you. Wearing them is necessary to protect yourself against the serious consequences of the disease. They are currently available in many colors and designs, and their appearance can be very feminine. There is also a version for men.
Take the right medication – If your doctor thinks that the risk of having a thrombosis is high, you may be able to prescribe the right medicines that you should take as long as you need to.